Amphoteric surfactants are compounds containing both types of groups in the composition of molecules: acidic (most often carboxylic) and basic (usually an amino group of different degrees of substitution). Depending on the pH of the medium, they can exhibit the properties of cationic (pH <4), nonionic (4–9), anionic (pH> 9) surfactants. This combination of surface-active properties of molecules of different classes of surfactants in one amphoteric surfactant molecule allows to increase the effectiveness of detergents.
Amphoteric surfactants soften tissues, hair, have an antistatic effect, are effective when used in hard and cold water. Amphoteric surfactants are well combined with surfactants of all kinds, have good foaming properties, bactericidal activity and dermatological properties.